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Ontario Place; Cinesphere

LAST UPDATE: November 4 2020

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photo credit, courtesy of Bob Krawczyk

photo credit, courtesy of Bob Krawczyk

AT RISK INFORMATION
At risk status:
This building is at risk

Info:

Watch The History of Ontario Placea new video exploring the architecture of Ontario Place, brought to you by ACO Toronto and Old Toronto Series.

Concerns about the future of Ontario Place have re-emerged early in 2019 after Jim Ginou, re-appointed board chair of Ontario Place, stated: “There is nothing that can be saved. Because it has to be rebuilt, it can be rebuilt in any way that [Doug] Ford wants it to be rebuilt.”

Mid-January 2018: The Provincial government opened the site to international proposals for redevelopment. The guidelines dictate that the land will not be sale but available for long-term lease. Other restrictions include no residential development and a requirement to keep 7.5 acres (of the site´s total 155 acres) of park land. Proposals can incorporate part or all of the space (except for the Budweiser Stage), putting the Cinesphere at risk.

May 28, 2019: Michael Tibollo (Minister of Tourism, Culture and Sport) made an announcement at Ontario Place, re-opening the global call for submissions to develop the Ontario Place site. Minister Tibollo referred to Ontario Place as a ´diamond in the rough´ and outlined a vision to revive the site into a destination for locals, Canadians, and tourists. Minister Tibollo reassured that this redevelopment would not include residential units or casinos. The deadline for proposals is September 3, 2019. The Call for Development informational package posted to ontarioplacedevelopment.com outline that the majority of the Ontario Place site is open to redevelopment: "The areas available for development include the entirety of the East Island, the West Island, the mainland, the pod complex, and the Cinesphere cinema. There are no limitations on the use and / or retention of existing assets on Site, with the exception of the Budweiser Stage, as set out below." When asked whether the construction could impact the Cinesphere, Minister Tibollo reiterated that all options are on the table. This means that the architecture and landscape architecture of the site is still at risk of demolition and redevelopment. At the announcement, there was no mention of the City of Toronto Council approving the addition of Ontario Place to the Heritage Property Register earlier in May. 

July 8 2019: John Alschuler, Chairman of HR&H Advisors in NYC, has helped develop waterfront plans for cities around the world. He spoke with CBC Metro Morning´s Matt Galloway about Ontario Place and approaches to its redevelopment ahead of a meeting in Toronto with City officials and experts to discuss the future of the site.

October 29 2019: Ontario Place is one of 25 sites added to the World Monuments Fund's 2020 World Monuments Watch list of at-risk sites of historical significance. ACO's Bill Greaves made the nomination. See Ontario Place's listing here.

View sources at the bottom of this page for more information and articles about the threat to Ontario Place. Slides from Ken Greenberg´s Alternative Futures: Ontario Place and Exhibition Place Ambitions and Vulnerabilities presentation at the Rally for Ontario Place (January 12, 2019) can be viewed through this link.

BUILDING INFORMATION
Name & Location
Ontario Place; Cinesphere
5 Burnfield Avenue Lake Shore Boulevard West
Niagara, Toronto

OTHER IDENTIFICATION
Awards:

1969: Canadian Architect Award

  • Award of Excellence.

1999: Ontario Association of Architects Awards

  • 25-Year Award.

 

Alternate names:
The Bubble

Notes:

Ontario Place\'s Cinesphere opened in 1971 and was the first permanent IMAX theatre in the world. It is a 35-metre-wide, triodetic dome constructed from steel and aluminium tubes. 

Ontario Place was a project designed to revitalize Toronto\'s waterfront. The site consisted of over 90 acres of artifically-made islands and lagoons. A break-water was formed using sunken ships. 

In 2011, a renovation of the Cinepshere was completed by Gow Hastings Architects. The main theatre, lobbies, projection booth, sound system, concession stand, and visitor amenities were renovated. The facility was closed in 2012, but re-opened in 2017 and continues to show films.

This building won a Canadian Architect Award of Excellence in 1969, and an Ontario Association of Architects 25-Year Award in 1999. In 2017, the Cinesphere, along with the Pods, received the Prix du XXe Siècle from the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada and the National Trust. 

The Cinepshere was designated a structure of Cultural Heritage Value in 2014 by the province of Ontario. This designation reflects both the context of the complex\'s construction and its design. The complex is an excellent example of modern expressionism in Ontario, notably the geometric design of the Cinesphere and Pods.

On May 14, 2019, Toronto City Council carried a motion to include Ontairo Place on the Heritage Property Register. 

On October 29, 2019 it was placed on the World Monuments Fund 2020 Watch list

Status:
Completed

Year Completed:
1971

Map:
Loading Map

Companies:
The following companies are associated with this building

BUILDING DATA
Type:
Low-rise

Current use:
Cultural

Heritage:
Listed

Main Style:
Mid century expressionist   <--  More buildings in this style.

Sources:

Sources

  1. Canadian Architect
    Date - 1969 Yearbook
    Page - 38-39

  2. Canadian Architect
    Date - August 1971
    Page - 43-45

  3. Canadian Architect
    Date - June 1971
    Page - 38-48

  4. Perspectives (OAA Newsletter)
    Date - Summer 1999
    Page - 30

  5. The Globe and Mail
    Date - November 26, 2005
    Page - M6
    Notes - Chosen by Michael Prokopow as a building to preserve.

  6. Toronto Society of Architects Guide Map 1953-2003

  7. Cinesphere
    Author - Ontario Place
    Notes - Official Ontario Place website. See ´About Cinesphere´ section. 
    More information

  8. Ontario Place
    Author - Zeidler Architects
    Notes - Project details for the construction of Ontario Place by Craig, Zeidler and Strong.
    More information

  9. Ontario Place Cinesphere and Pods and CN Tower receive 2017 Prix du XXe siècle
    Author - Royal Architectural Institute of Canada
    Notes - Details about 2017 Prix de XXe Siecle.
    More information

  10. Ontario Place Cinesphere Renovation
    Author - Gow and Hastings Architects
    Notes - Project information for the 2011 revitalization of the Cinesphere
    More information

  11. Ontario Place, Toronto
    Author - James Ashby and Michael McClelland
    Date - Toronto November 12, 2014
    Notes - Article about Ontario Place in docomomoUS
    More information

  12. Your Ontario Place
    Author - Urbanspace Gallery
    Date - 2012
    Notes - History and timeline of Ontario Place
    More information

  13. Inside the newly restored Cinesphere at Ontario Place
    Author - Jennifer Cheng
    Date - November 3, 2017
    Notes - Details about re-opening and revitalization of the Cinesphere.
    More information

  14. 1970 Construction Photograph
    Author - Toronto Public Library
    Notes - Source for 1970 construction image
    More information

  15. 1971 Aerial Photograph Source
    Author - Toronto Public Library
    More information

  16. ‘Nothing can be saved’ at Ontario Place? That’s simply not true
    Author - Edward Keenan
    Date - January 8, 2019
    Notes - Toronto Star article about the threats to Ontario Place
    More information

  17. Revitalize Ontario Place but don’t raze it, residents say at rally for waterfront park
    Author - Wendy Gillis
    Date - January 12, 2019
    Notes - Toronto Star article about the public´s reaction to threats facing Ontario Place 
    More information

  18. Ontario Place must remain ‘family friendly’ and accessible to all, experts say. Here are their ideas
    Author - David Rider
    Date - January 11, 2019
    Notes - Toronto Star article about threats to Ontario Place 
    More information

  19. From the beginning, Ontario Place was about the future
    Author - Jennifer Pagliaro
    Date - January 12, 2019
    Notes - Toronto Star article detailing the context of the construction of Ontario Place, in light of recent (Jan. 2019) threats to the site.  
    More information

  20. On the Ontario Place for Canada´s Centennial Project
    Author - Eberhard Zeidler
    Date - April 22, 2017
    Notes - Ontario Place architect Eb Zeidler speaks about the original vision for Ontario Place, the Centennial project he designed.Link to video recording of the talk in ´More Information´. Slides from the talk in document section below. 
    Document - Eb Zeidler- Ontario Place slides
    More information

  21. Ontario Place Cinesphere, pods could be demolished under Ford government plan
    Author - David Rider
    Date - January 18, 2019
    Notes - Toronto Star article about the opening of the site to international proposals
    More information

  22. Ontario Place (2019 Redevelopment Bid)
    Author - Province of Ontario
    Date - January 18, 2019
    Notes - Ontario website about the call for bids for the site´s redevelopment
    More information

  23. Statement of Cultural Heritage Value
    Author - Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Sport
    Date - 2014
    Notes - Ontario Place is a cultural heritage landscape of provincial significance. The statement was taken from the Ministry of Culture,Tourism and Sport´s website in January 2019. The pdf. is a downloaded and saved copy.
    Document - f270689550f9e8c6f40890b164ce4dc6.pdf
    More information

  24. Alternative Futures: Ontario Place and Exhibition Place Ambitions and Vulnerabilities
    Author - Ken Greenberg
    Date - January 12, 2019
    Notes - This slide presentation was delivered at the Rally for Ontario Place, held January 12, 2019 at Metro Hall, attended by approximately 500 people. 
    Document - ee06f292cba0707f69ddad38705ae139.pdf

  25. Toronto Star: Secret Ontario Place documents tell a story of success, not failure
    Author - Bob Hepburn
    Date - Aug. 8, 2012
    Notes - When the provincial government announced the sudden closure in February of Ontario Place, it portrayed the waterfront park as a money-losing disaster. But, in fact, Ontario Place was not on the ropes. 
    More information

  26. Standards & Guidelines for Conservation of Provincial Heritage Properties
    Author - Ministry of Tourism, Culture & Sport
    Date - April 28, 2010
    Notes - Standards and guideliens set out by the provincial government in 2010 regarding the provincially owned heritage properties. 
    Document - Standards & Guidelines for Conservation of Provincial Heritage Properties

  27. Can Ontario Place be saved from Doug Ford?
    Author - Richard Longley
    Date - January 18, 2019
    Notes - Now Toronto article about the threat to Ontario Place and if and how it can be saved. 
    More information

  28. Toronto Star:Majority of Toronto residents want public waterfront access at Ontario Place — not a casino, poll finds
    Author - David Rider
    Date - January 28, 2019
    Notes - Torontonians overwhelmingly want easy public access to the Ontario Place waterfront, something not guaranteed in the Doug Ford government’s redevelopment plan. 
    Document - Majority of Toronto residents want public waterfront
    More information

  29. Toronto Star Editorial:
    Notes - The long-awaited revitalization of Ontario Place doesn’t have to start with the roar of bulldozers demolishing what’s already there. In fact, it most decidedly shouldn’t. Instead, the rejuvenation of the once-
    More information

  30. Globe and Mail: How Toronto Sunk its Own Little Venice
    Author - Dave LeBlanc
    Date - January 26, 2019
    Notes - How Toronto sunk its own little Venice Open this photo in gallery Architect Eberhard Zeidler, far left, unveils Harbour City, a proposed residential development at Ontario Place, in 1969. 
    Document - How Toronto Sunk Its Own Little Venice
    More information

  31. Toronto Star: Ontario Place is too valuable to squander
    Author - Ken Greenberg, Bruce Kuwabara, Paul Bedford, George Baird
    Date - Mon., Jan. 28, 2019
    Notes - Opinion Piece comparing the threat to Ontario Place to the threat to Union Station and Old City Hall and asking for the cultural value as defined by the province be conserved in any redevelopment.
    Document - 15bb74e70917197a70a5bd80f1330e24.pdf
    More information

  32. Promotional video for Ontario Place (1971)
    Author - Ontario Department of Trade and Development
    Date - 1971
    Notes - YouTube video uploaded by the Archives of Ontario. Promotional video for Ontario Place documenting the history and construction of Ontario Place, along with its facilities and attractions.
    More information

  33. Theme From Ontario Place (B-Side)
    Notes - YouTube video. The B-side to a single produced by Government of Ontario to promote Ontario Place.
     
    More information

  34. Dolores Claman´s Theme From Ontario Place 1970s (A-Side)
    Notes - YouTube video. A-Side of a single produced for promoting Ontario Place, with promitional video footage.
    More information

  35. ACO Backgrounder on Ontario Place
    Author - ACO Policy Committee
    Date - January 30, 2019
    Notes - This document was drafted for delegates to Heritage Advocacy Day at Queen´s Park, Feb 20, 2019. It contains links to the Statement of Cultural Heritage Value, the  Standards and Guidelines for Conservation of Provincial Heritage Property, a lis
    Document - Backgrounder- Ontario Place is at Risk

  36. Cirque du Soleil coming to Ontario Place this fall
    Author - Robert Benzie
    Date - February 11, 2019
    Notes - Toronto Star article announcing that Cirque du Soleil will be performing 80-90 shows at Ontario Place starting at the end of summer 2019.  Article quotes Doug Ford, who claims that this is a step to "bring family-oriented entertainment and excitement
    More information

  37. Ontario Place Statement by MPP Adam Vaughan
    Author - Adam Vaughan
    Date - February 6, 2019
    Notes - Statement by MPP Adam Vaughan to the Speaker about the need to keep Ontario Place as a place for all. 
    More information

  38. The History of Ontario Place
    Author - ACO Toronto & Old Ontario Place Series
    Date - 7 March 2019
    More information

  39. Inclusion on the City of Toronto´s Heritage Register
    Author - City of Toronto
    Date - April 12, 2019
    Notes - Recommendation by Heritage Preservation Services to place Ontario Place on the Heritage Register. 
    Document - Inclusion on the City of Toronto´s Heritage Register –955 Lake Shore Boulevard West (Ontario Place)
    More information

  40. Toronto staff recommends listing Ontario Place on city´s heritage register
    Author - Lucas Powers; CBC News
    Date - 20 April 2019
    More information

  41. Ontario Place: Building On Our Legacy
    Author - Helena Grdadolnik
    Date - May 8, 2019
    Notes - "Toronto’s iconic Ontario Place is up for redevelopment. Is there a better alternative to tearing it down and starting afresh?" Article in the May 2019 issue of Canadian Architect (https://www.canadianarchitect.com/).
    Document - Ontario Place: Building On Our Legacy
    More information

  42. Toronto Waterfront Opportunity: Ontario Place Call for Development
    Author - Government of Ontario
    Date - May 28, 2019
    Notes - On May 28, 2019 the Ontario Government re-released their Call for Development of the Ontario Place site. The attached document is the information is the Call for Development informational package.
    Document - Toronto Waterfront Opportunity: Ontario Place Call for Development
    More information

  43. Expert advice on what to keep at Ontario Place
    Author - Matt Galloway, CBC Metro Morning
    Date - 8 July 2019
    Notes - John Alschuler, Chairman of HR&H Advisors in NYC, has helped develop waterfront plans for cities around the world. He´s in Toronto to meet with City officials and experts to discuss the future of Ontario Place.
    More information

  44. 2020 World Monuments Watch
    Author - World Monuments Fund
    Date - 29 October 2019
    Notes - When it opened in 1971, Ontario Place gave Toronto’s citizens the opportunity to experience the city’s waterfront like they never had before. Creating a new urban amenity was envisioned as a celebration of Ontario’s cultural and economic
    More information

  45. Ontario Place added to international list of ‘at-risk cultural heritage sites’
    Author - David Rider, Toronto Star
    Date - 29 October 2019
    More information

  46. Toronto Star: Reporting on Minister Macleod Speech to Economic Club
    Author - Robert Benzie
    Date - October 31, 2019
    Notes - The minister underscored the government’s hopes for redeveloping Ontario Place, which this week was placed on a list of world heritage sites that are at risk.
    “I think we can all agree that, for decades, Ontario Place was a crown jewel of thi
    More information

  47. ACO Board Member, Bill Greaves on Breakfast Television
    Date - November 1, 2019
    Notes - Why does Ontario Place need to be preserved?
    Bill Greaves from the Architectural Conservancy of Ontario explains why Ontario Place is on the list of sites that are endagered and need to be preserved.
    November 1, 2019 07:07
    More information

  48. Chapter on Ontario Place from Eberhard Zeidler Building Cities Life
    Author - Eberhard Zeidler
    Date - 2013
    Notes - From two volume book on Eberhard Zeidler´s Life, describes the experience of the commission and construction of Ontario Place
    Document - 2fb43e8cf473c8b422ba739727f3a199.pdf

  49. Your Ontario Place Exhibition Panels
    Author - Urbanspace Gallery
    Date - 2012
    Notes - Exhibition timed to co-incide with the McGuinty governments review of the future of Ontario Place, chaired by John Tory. There was a companion open forum evening with various participants. At the time overdevelopment and a possible introduction of a casin
    Document - b59207b4d11ae19f03b37082241fa499.pdf

  50. Your Ontario Place, Exhibition Opening Invitation
    Author - Urbanspace Gallery
    Date - August 8, 2012
    Notes - Invitation to Your Ontario Place Exhibiiton and Opening, August 8, 2012
    Document - Invitation Opening

  51. World Monuments Fund Watch Magazine-Extracts on Ontario Place
    Author - World Monuments Fund
    Date - November 2019
    Notes - World Monuments Fund Watch Magazine featured Ontario Place as one of eight of the 25 sites featured. The pdf. contains the magazine cover, the inside pages with all 25 sites featured, as well as the write up specific to Ontario Place
    Document - 7f57f792d8ec4d81155ab942d4f3bc24.pdf
    More information

  52. Daily Commercial News Article on WMF Announcement
    Author - DCN News Service
    Date - November 7, 2019
    Notes - Resulting from ACO Press Release publicizing the WMF announcement. 
     
    More information

  53. Economic Impact of Open Spaces
    Author - HR&A Advisors
    Date - December 2018
    Notes - Pamphlet describing the positive impact of public open space on property values and economic development.
    Document - 8f96494d529271184ecfec52ab59ea15.pdf

  54. Learning from Ontario Place: Ideas for the Future
    Author - Sharon VanderKaay
    Date - September 30, 2016
    Notes - What if we revitalized this spectacular place to feed our shared social and economic aspirations in ways that are innovative and exciting? What if Ontario Place was once again “a place to stand, a place to grow”—for Ontarians a
    Document - 143c1373643f680932de8999c8802f61.pdf

  55. Open Ontario Place Park Exhibition
    Author - Max Allen
    Date - 2016
    Notes - An exhibition arguing for the re-opening of Ontario Place Parkland to the public.
    Document - 5339e0cef979effa933f462298bb1966.pdf

  56. Its Time for Ontario Place to Revive its Higher Purpose
    Author - Tye Farrow and Sharon VanderKaay
    Date - April 3, 2012
    Notes - 7 page report
     "The original soaring iconic design has been weighed down by a history of asking the 
    wrong operational questions. There’s a way to restore its extraordinary magic. "
    When Ontario Place opened it captured public imag
    Document - 1b83ef85ac68e8c78ee01ceee6ceeee5.pdf

  57. CTV Report:Ontario Place among list of 25 at-risk monuments in world
    Author - Katherine DeClerq
    Date - October 29, 2019
    Notes - TORONTO -- Ontario Place has been named among the list of 25 most at-risk monuments in the world.
    The World Monuments Fund (WMF), a not-for-profit organization dedicated to preserving what they call “treasured places,” released their list of
    Document - f58dec73582db4b644d48789ad9e3af9.pdf
    More information

  58. ACO Press Release:
    Author - ACO Provincial Office
    Date - October 30, 2019
    Notes - ACO thrilled with Ontario Place´s inclusion on World Monuments Fund 2020 Watch
    Architectural Conservancy Ontario (ACO) is thrilled that Ontario Place has been selected for inclusion in
    the World Monuments Fund 2020 Watch. "Not only does the inclusion b
    Document - 660b8ab15ab54e2a896b3dc07b69a693.pdf

  59. Premier John Robarts Speech
    Author - John P Robarts
    Date - November 3, 1970
    Notes - Speech made six months before the official opening date of Ontario Place, expressing Robarts intentions for Ontario Place, its meaning for Ontarians, hope for its future place in the life of the province and gratitude to its creators.
    Document - cc3833e815f085b3a0cddc249c5e04ff.pdf

  60. Globe and Mail: Expo 67 Legacy is Safe. What about Ontario Place
    Author - Alex Bozikovic
    Date - December 2, 2019
    Page - Online
    Notes - Part of the Expo site, now called Espace 67, recently received a full rebuild and remains public. Societeé du Parc Jean-Drapeau Half a century ago, Expo 67 showcased Canada at its boldest and most utopian. A few years later, that spirit travelled to Toronto with the opening of the waterfront Ontario Place. Today, those two sites face two very different futures. Part of the Expo site, now called Espace 67, recently received a full rebuild and remains public. But Ontario Place recently made the World Monuments Fund’s list of the 25 most endangered sites. One is a park, and the other could be sold for parts.
    Document - c2b30ef0f5d003a840bb43f6aff3feed.pdf
    More information

  61. Toronto Society of Architects Charrette results
    Author - TSA
    Date - March 30, 2019
    Notes -


    A message from the TSA Executive
    On March 30, 2019 the Toronto Society of Architects held a full day public design charrette on the future of Ontario Place. This charrette was done in fulfillment of our mandate to promote civic engagement on issues of design and architecture and in response to the Ontario government’s announcement of a new Expression of Interest seeking development concepts for Ontario Place. The following report summarizes the ideas and discussions generated during this exercise.
    While the explorations and proposals contained in this document showcase the almost endless possibilities for the site, they also highlight some fundamental shared visions for the future of this architectural and cultural landmark, namely:


    the existing built form, both architectural and landscape, are important and irreplaceable cultural assets which can and should be built upon;


    Ontario Place’s unique location on the shores of Lake Ontario should be the driving force behind any future development - utilizing this unique site to its maximum potential;


    public access to the lake and the shore should be prioritized and parkland preserved and expanded;


    the sustainability of Ontario Place lies beyond the islands, and involve a holistic understanding of the surrounding context including the mainland and neighbouring Exhibition Place;






    REIMAGINING ONTARIO PLACE: DESIGN CHARRETTE 3






    • prioritizing programming is key in reactivating the site; and




    • the future of Ontario Place needs to be a shared, multi-party vision involving both private and public organizations.
    Perhaps the most important lesson we learnt during the charrette is how engaged and invested both the professional design community and the general public are about the future of this unique site. Ontario Place is a cultural asset that belongs to all Ontarians and public consultation and engagement need to play a leading role in setting the direction for its future and ensuring it is representative and reflective of our province’s diversity, ideals and dreams.
    We hope this design charrette and subsequent report act as a starting point for this discussion and make ourselves available to work with the Province, City and the public to ensure the future of Ontario Place is a shared one.
    Respectfully,
    Maria Denegri, OAA, FRAIC Chair, Toronto Society of Architects



    More information

  62. Rally for Ontario Place Presentation
    Author - Ken Greenberg
    Notes - Slide Presentation from Rally for Ontario Place
    More information

  63. Bitter green: It’s not just Ontario Place’s buildings that face an uncertain future
    Author - Dave LeBlanc
    Date - January 24, 2020
    Notes - Running blindly, gleefully, through the Punching Bag Forest – a creation of the “father of soft play” Eric McMillan – as my sweaty little face briefly stuck to the bags as they slapped me silly. And slowly, peacefully, gliding underneath Eb Zeidler’s five futuristic pods on smooth-as-glass water via candy-coloured paddleboat. That these two very different early memories of Ontario Place stand out in my mind is fitting: Ontario Place was both frenetic and utterly soothing, a place to dance and eat and have fun but also to meditate and get lost in nature. And much of that has to do with the work of landscape architect Michael Hough. Most Torontonians know Mr. Zeidler’s story: While working on McMaster Health Sciences Centre in 1968, he got an unexpected phone call about a new, Expo 67-like complex to be built on the CNE grounds. The building(s) would feature an exhibition trumpeting the province’s achievements in technology, industry and culture. Open this photo in gallery The Ontario Place canal system, seen circa 1972, was built along with two islands and a nature trail. ZEIDLER FAMILY Soon, the idea expanded to buildings across Lake Shore Boulevard, placed directly into Lake Ontario (the five “Pods”) along with an experimental movie theatre in a triodetic dome (the world’s first IMAX, the Cinesphere). When Mr. Zeidler realized 90 per cent of his budget would go to massive underwater foundations (to combat the lake’s powerful forces), he was disheartened … until a family vacation to the Bahamas illustrated how coral reefs create calm lagoons. So, by sinking three Great Lakes freighters to create a breakwater, Ontario Place could be born.
    More information

  64. They Designed Ontario Place
    Author - Peterborough Examiner
    Date - Saturday May 22, 1971
    Notes -

    News paper article in the Peterborough Examiner about Ontario Place


    Document - PeterboroughExaminer_22May1971

  65. Breaking The Building Mould
    Author - Pat Johnson
    Date - Tuesday May 26, 1970
    Page - 24
    Notes -

    Article in The Telegram about Ontario Place


    Document - The Telegram_26May1970

  66. The Future of Ontario Place: Towards an Inclusive Preservation Dialogue
    Author - Aziza Chaouni, William Greaves, and Javier Ors Ausín, Azure Magazine
    Date - 9 October 2020
    More information

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